In QFT, the photon is taken to be exactly massless, reasoned to be a matter of definition dictated by theory rather than having a basis of physical measurement and observation. An upper limit on the miniscule photon mass can be obtained experimentally as [Lakes 2000]. In SFT the equations apply equally to the hydrogen atom as to the photon. This is because unlike the constraint upon the speed of light built into QFT from its earliest days, there appears to be no corresponding constraint upon the spinorial variables, namely the rotational velocities and radii within the equations of EMSFT. It is for this reason EMSFT theory tells us that like the atom but on a smaller level, the photon has an internal structure.

It seems also that the zero-mass photon was a product of theoretical necessity in developing an atomic bomb at Los Alamos within World War II. A zero-mass photon is in fact an approximatation to the reality we know today that energy forms found biologically are much tinier and more subtle than found inside explosions. Explosions are a chaotic form of energy whereas biophotons are intricate, coherent, and amazingly precise in their ordering of life and intelligence. Each time we use our long-term memory we are in fact using biophotons (the same as ordinary photons but used biologically) of precise frquency; these frequencies are recognised by a particular DNA base within the appropriate neuron within the brain and a transcription may occur within the DNA. Using SFT, we can in fact determine these frequencies as a function of the mass of the photon in exactly the same way as we can obtain the spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom using EMSFT.

For a preliminary discussion on the way SFT sees the Universe, go to cosmology. A composite photon allows for faster-than-light or supraluminal inflation in the first second of the Big-Bang.

See Analytic Estimate for the Mass of the Photon Proceedings of PIERS 2009 in Moscow, August 18-21, 2009 


According to PSFT, two sub-photonic particles of opposite charge, or in the case of the W+ and W- bosons, the same charge orbit around one another. The uncertainty principle does not allow such knowledge within quantum mechanics and for this reason with the hindsight of EM self-field theory the uncertainty principle is seen as a parameter of mathematical accuracy rather than a limit upon the fabric of reality itself; the Copenhagen Interpretation must be viewed in historical perspective as fundamentally flawed in espousing a mathematical theory as reality. This is a fundamental error in assuming a theoretical model and the real world are one and the same. If ever we do find that a model of reality matches the real world we can all pack up and go home satisfied with our days effort; either that or we try to find a better theoretical microscope, in the present case SFT.

Like the atom, the photon appears both from theory and physical evidence to have a finite mass, a chemical substructure, and a spectroscopy Photon Chemistry.pdf 175 kB-left click to view, right click and 'save file as'. The states and the compounds of the photon vary according to the ambient energy density at a locality and form the various fields found in atomic and nuclear structures. The principle of a photonic chemistry allows us another level of physical interpretation and prediction over and beyond that given by conventional methods based on potential theory (wave equations).


In SFT the photon is modeled having an internal structure. The photon moves through space via two rotations. One of these rotations is a circular path across the Universe. Hence no energy is expended as the photon moves along this observable path. As in special relativity this curved motion becomes a straight line in the limit as the radius of the path approaches infinity. The other rotation is internal to the photon’s composite structure. This is where space-time in relativity is different to space-time in SFT.   In SFT the space-time of the photon is made up of an external variable and a hidden variable.