Standard Model of Cosmology

Big Bang, Inflation, Dark Matter, Dark Energy are all accepted as part of the Stand Model of Cosmology. Dark Flow has not yet been accepted into the model.  All these standard and non-standard parts of cosmology are based on observation.  Some have theoretical explanations, some do not. We have a pretty good understanding of the Big Bang and Inflation and both fit the observations but the rest are indicative of our lack of understanding.

But what is behind inflation? And what is dark matter, or dark energy, not to mention dark flow? Our standard model is being asked many questions. Anything that is suggested as a solution to these mysteries needs to answer all the questions while retaining the various elements of the overall picture built up over centuries of scientific effort, especially the outcome of the 20th century when general relativity (GR) was used to provide the first theoretical insights into the Big Bang.

Self-field theory (SFT) does indeed supply such hypothetical answers.

Figure 1                                                    Figure 2                                          Figure 3



Composite Photon ( See Analytic Estimate for the Mass of the Photon)

One of the key results of SFT to date is that the photon has an internal structure (See Figure 2 showing composite phonon). Such a finding allows faster than light (FTL) or supraluminal velocities of the sub-photonic elements. This also allows for a period of FTL inflation early on near the start of the Big Bang when temperatures and pressures were very high, high enough to cause a complete disassociation of the photon (see FIgure 1). Note that this is not the well-known creation-annnihilation of particle-pairs such as  two photons into the electron-positron , but a much more violent reaction where each photon 'ionizes' into its sub-constituents, the 'phroton and the ''ephectron' . (A photon consists of two particles of opposite charge but equal mass termed the phroton and the ephectron shown in Figure 2).

Note in Figure 1 that the normal 'GUT epoch' where gauge theory provides for inflation via the mechanics of the 'Mexican Hat' has been replaced by a photon epoch wherein the mechanism is similar to the subsequent eras the quark epoch, and the nuclear synthesis epochs first Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium, followed later by the synthesis of the higher elements within the evolution of the main sequence of stars. Note also that the Planck epoch has been renamed the initial epoch since in SFT Planck's 'constant' is seen as a variable of motion.

Note also that depending on the internal structure of the photon and how many levels or domains it has, there may be several inflationary periods after  the Cosmic Egg, the initial structure of the Universe, the 'Ylem' as Gamow called it, was detonated in the Big Bang.

Role of the Phonon in the structure of Galaxies (See A Possible Gravitational Structure for Galaxies

Like the photon the phonon has a composite structure (see Figure 2). In fact apart from their orientation (longitudinal instead of transverse) the photon and the phonon are synonymous. With a mixture of photons and phonons  galaxies have forces in three orthogonal directions in SFT a trispinor.  Compare with solar systems were only EM forces exist thus forces only exist in two orthogonal directions, a bispinor. Hence the rotation curve for galaxies is flat (See Figure 3.).  This according to SFT is the theory behind dark matter.

Dark Energy

Dark energy is the term used to describe observations since the 1990s that indicate that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. Again it is more a statement about our lack of knowledge. This is related to our current dependence on GR for cosmological modelling. Like quantum field theory GR is a formulation that determines the potentials surrounding a single particle. In contrast SFT concerns the fields around a small discrete group of particles; in the case of EM fields and particles this is the fields between two particles (bispinor). In nuclear regions or equivalently at the galactic level this is the fields between three particles (trispinor); and so on for higher order field configurations.  So dark energy is revealing the ability of the Universe to begin from an initial condition and to assume a final stable condition which we might call a cosmostasis.  Such a stable condition cannot be found using GR or quantum gravity as the computational or analytic method. However, like the solution for the hydrogen atom SFT can find a dynamic equilibrium state for the Universe.

For further information see

A.H.J. Fleming, EM Self-Field Theory: Electron and an 'Infinite Mass' Proton in Hydrogen Atom, Physics Essays, Volume 18, Number 3, September 2005, pp. 265-285 

A.H.J. Fleming, Self-Field Theory - a Mathematical Description of Physics, PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 20-23 2011, pp. 1680 - 1683  

Dark Flow

Dark Flow is another term describing a non-random component of the velocity of galaxy clusters. Some commentators have suggested that this must imply other universes tugging on our own Universe. This is not necessarily so. Looking at the SFT model of the Universe (also shown below) we see that just like the Solar System or the Galaxy where matter is attracted towards a central mass (this behaviour is observed across various levels of field configurations within the Universe), there is perhaps evidence for the SFT spinorial structure indicated in the diagram. As mentioned the Universe could be heading towards a cosmostasis, a dynamic equilibrium state.