STANDARD MODEL OF PARTICLE PHYSICS

The standard model is an attempt to organize matter into its fundamental elements. It is based on collision and scattering experiments and quantum field theory that has grown to include quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). These experiments began at the turn of the 20th century when Madame Curie experimented with radioactive materials including radium. No-one had any understanding of the effect she termed 'radioactivity'. Handfuls of this type of ore could emit trillions of a-particles for months without any detectable loss of mass. Rutherford proposed the atom to be mainly empty with a small ultradense centre, the nucleus. Nuclear physics became a politically dominant area of physics with the experimental efforts of Lise Meitner whose work catapulted Nazi efforts towards the development of an atomic weapon of war. Meitner like Einstein left Germany and the Jewish persecution in the build-up to WWII. There are many parallels between Meitner and Einstein who once described her as "our (Germany's) Madame Curie". Fortunately the Allies were first to develop an atomic bomb at Los Alamos where research into nuclear effects continues.

"The Standard Model is the result of an immense experimental and inspired theoretical effort spanning more than fifty years......With the planned construction of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN now agreed, the Standard Model will continue to be a vital and active subject......The beauty and basic simplicity of the theory can be appreciated at a certain 'classical' level, treating the boson fields as true classical fields and the fermion fields as completely non-commutating. To make contact with experiment the theory must be quantised. Many of the calculations of the theory are made in quantum perturbation theory. Those we present are for the most part to the lowest order of perturbation theory only, and do not have to be renormalized"

-Cottingham & Greenwood "An introduction to the standard model of particle physics" (Cambridge Press 2003)

Self-field theory allows a second view of the theory behind the experiments. Particles like quarks and fields such as gluons can be treated according to strong nuclear (SNSFT) and weak nuclear self-field theory (WNSFT), an atom consisting of atomic and nuclear interactions inside a composite self-field model.